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The Making of a Model Dig

Anna Johnstone

This week, we are featuring a story from a local Grade 11 student Anna Johnstone who is taking her passion in archaeology and sharing it with the community.

Hello, my name is Anna and I am a grade 11 student. For my Ancient Civilizations class I had to make what my teacher calls a ‘Passion Project’, which means that each student got to make any kind of project that they wanted as long as the subject related to the curriculum and we could, to quote my teacher, “get it out to the world”. I love to make models and dioramas so as soon as we started brainstorming our projects my mind jumped to a model of a dig site and artifacts that could be found at it. Since it was an Ancient Civilizations class, I decided that a site in Rome would be cool but the model looks as if it could be anywhere, even here in Ontario.

For the research part of the project I learned what kind of tools and equipment are used during an archaeological excavation and for the set-up of a site. I looked at photos of sites from all over the world, trying to decide which one I should base my model off of, but I decided that instead of trying to re-create a dig that already exists, it would be more fun to make a completely new site.

My project, inspired by archaeology in Rome.

Then began the planning and creation of the diorama, I made a few rough sketches (although I didn’t follow them too closely!) and got out a bunch of old shoe boxes and a hot glue gun. I started by making the trenches and the shallows around the artifacts.  Once I had the five trenches, I made the ground and box by cutting and gluing shoe boxes, the amount of hot glue that I used for this project was nuts! I then stuffed the box with crumpled paper so that it would be sturdier, glued the ground (with the trenches attached) to it and painted it to be more aesthetically pleasing. I covered the ground with white glue and poured sand over it to give it a nice texture (although I got so much sand on the floor I was sent outside by an irate mother to finish my task!).

The tools, trowels, brushes and pick axes, all started out as toothpicks, tinfoil, wooden skewers and bristles from a toothbrush. I made the tables and tents next, as well as a sifting tray and jewelry for one of the tables. When I had finished it seemed like something was missing, so I added small pegs and string around each trench to mark them off. When I had finally completed this part of the project, it seemed like it had taken forever! In reality it took me about a week to make, I have to admit that I largely ignored my other schoolwork and stayed up way too late every night! It was worth it! I then made the artifacts, a ring, a bracelet, a die, a clay doll, a dagger and a couple bones, and a display case to put them it.

Some of the ‘artifacts’ I made from scratch inspired by my studies in ancient civilizations.

I “got my project out to the world” by putting it on display in my school’s library and the libraries of the school where my mom teaches and my elementary school. I should also add that anyone visiting the MOA should keep an eye out for the diorama! By the time that I had completed the project, most people in my class hadn’t decided what they were going to do for their projects yet; I guess I had gotten a bit inspired!

I’m thrilled that my history teacher gave me the opportunity to do this project and many more as the class went on, she’s a great person with unique assignments that make her classes so much more fun! I loved making this project so much, it gave me the opportunity to learn more about archaeology, which I find fascinating, and make something that I am very proud of.

-Anna Johnstone-

Performing Presence: Pauline Johnson and Her Predecessors

There’s a spirit on the river, there’s a ghost upon the shore,
And they sing of love and loving through the starlight evermore,
As they steal amid the silence,
And the shadows of the shore.
From “Dawendine”

Pauline Johnson (1861-1913) was the best known female Canadian poet of her time. Born on the Six Nations Reserve in Brantford, Ontario, she learned Mohawk stories and traditions from her father, Chief George Johnson. Her mother, an English immigrant, taught her British literature. As an adult, Pauline Johnson drew on both sides of her heritage for her poetry, often writing on indigenous themes within the European poetic style. While many people enjoyed reading her work, Johnson became famous for her public appearances in which she performed in both a “Mohawk princess” costume and in a Victorian evening gown.

These costume changes have fascinated scholars for years. Some believe that Johnson acted as a “cultural mediator,” conveying indigenous culture and concerns such as land rights to her white audiences. Others criticise her praise of British colonial rule, or question whether she played into the common Euro-Canadian opinion that Native culture was on the path to extinction. Johnson’s “Mohawk princess” costume, they argue, was only meant to add exotic appeal.

However, a more recent study done by Professor Manina Jones and Dr. Neal Ferris (the Lawson Chair of Canadian Archaeology) suggests otherwise. When considered in the context of Haudenosaunee diplomatic tradition, Johnson becomes one of many to use language and costume as tools for negotiation.

Take, for example, Joseph Brant (c. 1742-1807), also known as Thayendanegea. As a leader for the Mohawk Nation during and after the American Revolutionary War,

Brant spoke and wrote fluent English with his British allies. He also adapted his clothes to different situations:  he wore a European suit for formal meetings with politicians, but changed to traditional dress during a visit to Fort Niagara. The suit displayed his cultural understanding and flexibility, while the traditional costume served as a reminder of the Six Nations’ alliance with the British military.

As well as asserting his own and other Nations’ presence in British North America, Brant’s public appearances drew on Mohawk and Haudenosaunee traditions which had existed before European settlers arrived. When the Six Nations and their allies met, they often performed traditional dances for each other and shared their history, crafts, and innovations. In the nineteenth century, Pauline Johnson shared her stories and culture through poetry.

Want to learn more about Pauline Johnson’s family and the history of Six Nations’ Reserve? Stay tuned for the second post in this series, “The Two Front Doors of Chiefswood,” coming soon!

Works Cited

Ferris, Neal and Manina Jones. “Flint, Feather and Other Material Selves: Negotiating the Performance Poetics of E. Pauline Johnson.” American Indian Quarterly. 41, 2, 2017. 33-157.

Ferris, Neal. Archaeology of Native-Lived Colonialism. University of Arizona Press, 2009.

Johnson, E. Pauline. “Dawendine.” The White Wampum. Toronto: The Copp Clark Co., 1895. 19-23.

Image Sources

 http://www.christinepilgrim.com/Pauline%20Johnson.htm

 http://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/uploads/r/null/8/4/842898/935964a3-d5bf-4808-949b-ebc828d80c5f-A35998.jpg

http://www.josephbrant.com/

MOA Staff Post: Zsofia Agoston

This photo was taken by the forested creek behind MOA!

Hello Everyone! My name is Zsofia Agoston, and I am a third-year student at Western University majoring in Anthropology and Museum/Curatorial Studies. This year I have been working as a Curatorial Assistant doing an array of jobs including cataloguing archaeological donations, overlooking our archaeological inventory, and maintaining our gallery and exhibition spaces. Prior to this role, I volunteered at the MOA since September of 2016. Read more

The Classificatory-Descriptive Period: Explorers and Romance

Written by MOA Exhibition Intern Joel Wodhams

What do you think of when you think “archaeologist?” Don’t try to be too correct. Have some fun. When I think of an archaeologist I cannot help but imagine an Indiana Jones-like figure: someone exploring jungles and deserts in search of mysteries from the ancient world. This isn’t what archaeology is today, but it is part of the undeniable charm and romance of archaeology. Read more

Colony of Avalon, Ferryland, Newfoundland and Labrador

By Alicia Sherret

 

Remember that scene in Indiana Jones when you weren’t quite sure if Indy and Marion were going to escape from the snake filled temple in the Well of Souls? Well, there’s an archaeological site a little closer to home with the same secrets, surprises and religious past. While a visit to the Colony of Avalon at Ferryland, Newfoundland, might be a little shorter on action than an Indiana Jones movie, it’s got excitement and interest of its own.

The Well of Souls from Raiders of the Lost Ark http://www.tasteofcinema.com/2016/the-20-best-scenes-in-indiana-jones-movies/3/

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Protecting the Past

By: Marissa Buckland

When people think of archaeology, they often think of box office hits like Indiana Jones and Lara Croft: Tomb Raider. These movies suggest that archaeological “treasures” can only be discovered in faraway lands such as the pyramids of Peru or the tombs of Cambodia, when in fact archaeological artifacts can be found right outside your back door here in Ontario!

About an hour north of Toronto are a series of archaeological sites near Wilcox Lake, on the Oak Ridges Moraine, located in Richmond Hill, that span most of the human history of Ontario. The TRCA (Toronto and Region Conservation Authority) began initial excavation of the Lost Brant site in 1992 and intensive excavations took place from 1999 – 2002, uncovering almost 10, 000 artifacts, including chert points and pieces of ceramic vessels[1].

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The Speculative Period: Early Collectors

Guest Blog By Joel Wodhams, Exhibit Intern Summer 2017

Canada’s 150th birthday is fast approaching, but did you know there is over 150 years of archaeology at the Lawson site? From its humble origins in the mid 1800s to its current day affiliation with the Museum of Ontario Archaeology and the University of Western Ontario, Lawson has captured the imagination of generations.

Archaeology evolves from the underlying human interest in the past. Archaeology is a modern practice, evolving since the 1800’s, but interest in the human past spans back hundreds of years.

At a time sometimes called the “Speculative Period,” early collectors created their own understandings of the past. The famous example in North America of this speculative period is the Moundbuilder myth: that the large burial mounds in the United States must have been built by an ancient civilization totally unrelated to the indigenous population.

Jury Collection on display at the Western Fair, September 1931.

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World’s Oldest Dress Re-Discovered

By Emila Siwik

 

The Tarkhan Dress

Could the world’s oldest dress be the coolest Archaeological discovery of 2016? Recent work by Alice Stevenson and Michael Dee shows that a dirty linen cloth excavated in 1913 by Sir Flinders Petrie is actually a dress.  But not just any dress – the world’s oldest woven garment! The Tarkhan dress dates to around 3200 BC and was once worn by a female Egyptian teenager of royal descent.  It was found in a First Dynasty Tomb south of Cairo  and is made out of flax plants that were spun, then woven into linen.  Linen was the fabric of choice in ancient Egypt; many people were wrapped in it during the mummification process and it was often given as a symbolic offering after death. The dress was tailored, meaning that it was not draped or tied to the body, but cut and fitted.  It had a V-neck and pleated sleeves and bodice. Signs of wear at the elbow and armpits show that it was a beloved item worn often in life, then brought into the after world.  It was placed in the tomb folded and inside out to allow the detail around the cuffs and neckline to stay intact through the years. Read more

Negotiating Authenticity: Engaging with 3D Models and 3D Prints of Archaeological Things

By: Beth Compton

Twitter: @Beth_Compton

Web Hub: http://www.ourpresentpast.org/

If you’ve ever been really excited to go to a museum exhibition only to discover later that part or all of the display was made up of replicas, you’ll know that, for some reason, people tend to feel differently about the “real thing” than they do about the “copy” or the “fake.”  People have fascinating relationships with things and their copies. Sometimes we don’t know or understand where our own impressions of authenticity come from, or why we feel better about certain modes of representation and replication than we do about others. While some might really enjoy looking at a 3D model of an artifact on a screen – zooming in to take a closer look, flipping it around to see its different sides – others might prefer seeing the original artifact in a glass case in a museum. Still others might prefer to hold a 3D printed replica, able to run their fingers over the surface of the object and heft it in their hand. A lot of this is pretty subjective. Read more

+Positive Voice: Anne’s Story

 

Interview with Anne from the +Positive Voice Program at Nokee Kwe

My name is Anne and I am a woman who was lucky and proud to have been a part of the +Positive Voice program. Over the seven weeks I spent with the program’s director Summer and the women, I can truly say was a positive experience.

I have seen many programs for aboriginal woman, but this is a program where I have seen aboriginal woman stand in front of me and praise one another. This is why I wanted to be a part of the second session of +Positive Voice.

On the first day of the program we were asked why we wanted to be in +Positive Voice and my answer was “I heard from the women of the first group it was good, and I want to find my independence and not just be a mom anymore. I want to find me”.

Summer explained everything to us, such as how the next seven weeks were to run and who our hopeful guests were to be. She was very coordinated, organized and excited about the second session and us. I can’t complain, I was pretty excited too. Read more