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TMHC War of 1812 Artifacts

War of 1812 Artifacts Archaeological excavations conducted by Timmins Martelle Heritage Consultants Inc. (TMHC) uncovered a small number of artifacts from the War of 1812. These included a musket ball, two buck shot and a caltrop. Click here to see image examples.  The musket ball measured between 16.5 mm (0.65 inch) and 17.0 mm (0.67 inch) in diameter, and both buck shot measured in the double naught size range, that is, between 8.4 mm (0.33 inch) and 8.9 mm (0.35 inch) in diameter. These sizes were consistent with the buck and ball load American troops employed during the War of 1812. Buck and ball was a paper cartridge containing one musket ball and two or three buck shot. The purpose was to increase the chance of hitting a target with the bonus possibility of hitting multiple targets with one shot. The smaller buck shot might not kill a target but could cause enough injury to remove a soldier from battle.

buck and ball
Buck and Ball found during excavations by TMHC

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Simcoe’s Boat found in Thames

For Immediate Release                                                                                                                                                 April 1, 2014

Simcoe’s Boat Found  in Thames River

Local archaeologists have discovered a remnant of an ancient boat found in the Thames River. It is believed to have belonged to Simcoe on his voyage here in the late 1700s. Last summer’s low river levels presented archaeologists with an opportunity to investigate the soil beneath the bed of the Thames River, revealing a historically significant piece of wood.  Professor Anaidni Senoj was leading his team’s excavation and recounts his discovery:  “When I came across the piece of wood, I knew immediately that I’d hit historical gold. I chuckled to myself, tipped my fedora, and said my favourite Indiana Jones quote from The Last Crusade: ‘This should be in a Museum!'” Read more

Selected Artifacts from the Fugitive Slave Chapel Site

Fugitive Slave Chapel Artifacts

Objects found at an archaeological site tell us a lot about the people who lived there. After all, archaeology is the study of material evidence left behind by humans in order to understand their behaviour.

We cannot yet tell you a lot about life at the Fugitive Slave Chapel because analysis of the artifacts has only just begun. The artifacts were excavated in May to July 2013 and were washed and processed in January 2014. The research that has been found was collected thanks to volunteer efforts. The Museum of Ontario Archaeology is lucky to have the chance to display these artifacts to the public before they are analysed and researched by the archaeological team, Timmins Martelle Heritage Consultants.

Out of 41 excavated units, a total of 8 potential cultural features were identified on the site. One may have been a grey water pit and others were likely small refuse pits which explains the wide assortment of ceramics, glassware, and buttons.

 Selected artifacts from the Fugitive Slave Chapel Site

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Archaeology Flotation

Flotation Technique in Archaeology


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What is it?
Flotation uses water to process soil samples and recover tiny artifacts that would not ordinarily be recovered when screening soil during an archaeological investigation.  The reason these artifacts aren’t normally recovered is that they are so tiny that they fall through the ¼” screen typically used by archaeologists to sift the soil.

To recover tiny artifacts, a soil sample is placed on a screen and with the addition of water; artifacts are separate from the dirt particles.  Light materials (called light fraction) float on top of the water while heaver materials such as bone, pottery, and stone rest on the screen.  Light materials include plant remains, seeds, and insects which can reveal information about diet, environment, and climate.

Heavy and light materials are collected separately and placed on a tray to dry. Once the sample has thoroughly dried, the material is placed in archival bags for storage and further research. Read more

How Archaeologists Get a Date

How Archaeologists Get a Date
A Valentine’s Day blog post 

Archaeologists like to use several dating methods to find out more about artifacts. It all depends on what the object is, where the archaeologist is located (what resources he/she has access to), and how old the artifact appears to be.

What is eligible for dating?
Not every artifact is eligible for all dating methods; for example, an artifact must be made from a carbon-based material to use radiocarbon dating (stone, for example doesn’t have carbon).  A stone artifact can be dated based on the way it looks and/or the way it was made.  Over many years of research chronologies of stone tools (and pottery) have been built, based on styles (called Seriation).

Archaeologists can also be matchmakers by using the context, which is the where, when and how an artifact is found. In the end, archaeologists often use a few different methods on an group of artifacts found together to come up with a reasonable date.

CarbonDating - How Archaeologists Get a Date

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Photographing Artifacts: FSC project

Photographing Fugitive Slave Chapel Artifacts 

Larry has volunteered to take photograph some of the important artifacts from the Fugitive Slave Chapel site. In the early afternoon, he was taking pictures of important bottles for future research.  We caught him photographing a medicine bottle with the words “pain killer” and “vegetable”. Researchers will find a date and more details about the product.

You can do a quick search for “pain killer vegetable bottle” on Google and see what you find! Who knows, the artifact featured in this video could be Perry Davis’ vegetable pain killer…

Photography and archaeology:

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Archaeology at the Fugitive Slave Chapel Site

About Archaeology on the Fugitive Slave Chapel site

Archaeology was underway in May 2013 at the site of the Fugitive Slave Chapel. Timmins Martelle Heritage Consultants Inc. conducted the archaeology assessment with the help of public archaeology volunteers.  TMHC has a passion for, and experience in early black history archaeology in Ontario and were considered a good fit for this local project.
Much of the material found on the site were from the 19th century, ranging from buttons and nails to animal bones, bottles, and ceramics.

Learn more about the initial phases of the Chapel Site project and the working relationships among the archaeologists as they conducted the archaeology assessment and recovered thousands of artifacts in the interview with Darryl Dann, amember of London Advisory Committee and volunteer assistant field director with Timmins Martelle Heritage Consultants. Read more

History of Fugitive Slave Chapel site

In 1986, the London Public Library installed a plaque to recognize the African Methodist Episcopal Church as a “priority one” heritage property in the City. It is the site of the first church of the Black community in London.

In the 1800s, Canada abolished slavery and subsequently, it became a refuge for slaves fleeing from the U.S. The 1840s saw a significant gathering of slave refugees in the area. In 1847, land was bought for the African Methodist Episcopal Church (also referred to as the Fugitive Slave Chapel). In 1869, the congregation moved to Beth Emmanuel church at 430 Grey Street which still stands today with a congregation as strong as ever.

Despite its prominence, the site isn’t designated by the government and is therefore not protected under the Ontario Heritage Act. Funding is being raised to move the Fugitive Slave Chapel beside Beth Emmanuel Church and preserve and share its history. In its new location,  the hopes are that “the chapel will be used to preserve its history and facilitate research and education about the underground rail road and related subjects. The centre will also include a Black history library and a small showroom or museum for Black historical artefacts” (FSCPP). Read more

Artifact Washing: FSC Site

Artifact Washing Process:

Small groups of 6-8 people work to help wash artifacts from the Fugitive Slave Chapel site. In the summer, 1 meter square units were excavated on the site and any materials found in that space were documented and kept together in “field bags” with attached provenience information: site number, unit coordinates, level, date, and excavator’s initials. Each bag is given a separate number for the site. Artifacts from the completed units are taken to a lab for processing.

At the Museum of Ontario Archaeology, volunteers are taking items out of the field bags to wash. Read more

Archaeology Volunteers with the Fugitive Slave Chapel project

Darryl Dann is a licensed archaeologist and volunteer with the archaeology at the Fugitive Slave Chapel project in London (275 Thames Street). He is currently helping organize and supervise the washing of artifacts excavated at the site this past summer. Volunteers have been washing the artifacts at the Museum of Ontario Archaeology for the month of January 2014.

Volunteers have been working on two jobs: washing artifacts and documenting the items to help cataloguers enter the artifact information into a database for storage, ease of access, and future research.

An amazing group of over 35 volunteers have taken part in this public archaeology excavation and post-excavation process. It has been a great opportunity to learn about artifacts, history, and the archaeology process.

Watch this video about the Fugitive Slave Chapel project to learn more!