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Museum Secrets

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EXPLORE OUR SECRETS!

These are just some of the things you can explore at MOA.  Check out our secrets and visit www.londonsecrets.ca to learn more about other London museum secrets.

 1.  Up to 2000 people lived in the Lawson Village during the 16th century.

Lawson Village, Ontario Canada

The Lawson Village, a 16th century ancestral village, is one of only a few sites in Southern Ontario where earthworks are preserved. Outside the palisade walls that protected the site, fields containing the Three Sisters extended out over four kilometers to the Masonville area in London. The site was believed to be occupied for approximately 25 years.

Excavations have recovered over 300,000 artifacts and the remains of at least 19 longhouses, 30 middens, and a palisade along the northern half of the site. Evidence suggests that at the height of occupation, the village was potentially home to over 2000 people. It was occupied year round, but many of its inhabitants left the village from April to December to engage in hunting, fishing, gathering, and the cultivation of the fields.

2. Despite being “discovered” in the 1850s, the first scientific excavations at the Lawson Village didn’t begin until the 1920s.

Wilf at Fairfield c.1940s
Wilf at Fairfield c.1940s

The Lawson Site was first extensively excavated by archaeologist William Wintemberg in the early 1920s, although the site had been known to locals since the 1850s. Some of the earliest recorded discoveries included 10 pipes, 60 bone needles, 100 bone beads, 12 abraders, and 150 projectile points.

The importance of the Lawson Site was first realized in the late nineteenth century by Dr. Solon Woolverton, a geology professor at the University of Western Ontario and a prominent London citizen. In 1894, Solon introduced the site to the Provincial Museum archaeologist, Dr. David Boyle, who undertook excavations from 1895-1920 and produced the first formal description of the site. His successor, Dr. Rowland B. Orr, visited the site in 1917 and subsequently published an article including a sketched map. Dr. William J. Wintemberg of the Victoria Museum in Ottawa (now the Canadian Museum of History) selected the Lawson Site for major fieldwork projects from 1921 to 1923.

MOA’s founder, Wilfrid Jury, met William Wintemburg at the Lawson Site in 1921. Wilfrid continued to excavate the site on his own in the 1930s and 40s. In total, less than 20% of the site has been excavated.

3. “Cold Tea” is a tradition started by Wilfrid Jury.

Wilifrid Jury Office

During the prohibition era alcohol was not allowed, so Wilfrid Jury discreetly enjoyed his scotch in dainty tea cups over pleasant conversation and company of his friends, collegues, and students in his office at the University.

In days of old, demon rum, and in fact alcohol of any kind (except in the chemistry lab), was regarded as a commodity too dangerous to be consumed on campus. The only exceptions were the Old Hunt Club (now Westminster College) and at meetings of the Board of Governors. Members of the teaching faculty should not have been able to afford it and even if they could, they would be totally irresponsible about it. Students were expected to confine their activities to the local bar, The Ceeps.

At the end of the fall term the irrepressible and iconoclastic Wilfrid Jury would invite some of the people he found compatible to his office for tea since there was no proscription against it. It must be remembered that Wilfrid, following the footsteps of his father, who was a personal friend of Sir John A. Macdonald, was by no means an abstainer

No time was ever mentioned because everyone knew that four o’clock is tea time. If you arrived late, you were scolded. Tea was served from an old brown betty tea pot, into a collection of mixed pattern tea cups. Some were cracked, some had handles, all were supplied with saucers. The brown liquid which came from the pot was cold, because it was, in fact, Seagram’s 83. The hot water jug and the cream pitcher contained water. No one was so impolite as to complain about the brand of “tea.” In addition, biscuits (often chocolate chip) were served with the “tea”. Somehow the tea got stronger as the time progressed, but it never ran out.

4.  The significance of finding mica at the Lawson Site

Mica

The Haudenosaunee and Anishinabe communities of this area engaged in trade or other forms of interaction with other cultural groups along the Atlantic Seaboard, Lake Superior, Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Illinois. Mica demonstrates the interaction and trade of the Hopewell culture of Ohio with other cultures to the east. Mica was used for personal adornment, temper in pottery, as a type of mirror, and for spiritual purposes.

5.  Why the reconstructed longhouse on the Lawson Site looks different from examples found in the museum’s gallery.

elm bark longhouse
Longhouse

The reconstructed longhouse on the Lawson site is more typical of those found in Northern Ontario because of its birch bark covering. In Southwestern Ontario it was more common for longhouses to be covered with elm bark.

Larry McLeod, a Sagamok First Nation member and Ojibway elder from North Bay, completed the most recent repairs in 2013 with a team of eight others. They brought in materials — tamarack poles, birch bark and spruce roots — from Northern Ontario.

6.  Games you can play with these bones.

Deerphlanges

These are deer phalanges, found on the Lawson Site, believed to possibly have been used for a cup and pin game.

There are two main types of modified deer phalanges:

a) a hole through the distal end with the proximal end broken off for a cup and pin game

b) distal end bead: a bead made from only the distal end of the phalanges (quite exclusive to pre-contact sites in Southwestern Ontario)

7.  Why archaeologists use water to find tiny artifacts.

The Flotation technique in archaeology uses water to process soil samples and recover small artifacts that would not ordinarily be recovered when screening soil during an archaeological investigation. The reason these artifacts aren’t normally recovered is that they are so tiny that they fall through the ¼” screen typically used by archaeologists to sift the soil.

Flotation 5
Jury_Day_2009 (4)
Flotation 1b


To recover tiny artifacts, a soil sample is placed on a screen, and with the addition of water, artifacts are separate from the dirt particles. Light materials (called light fraction) float on top of the water while heaver materials such as bone, pottery, and stone rest on the screen. Light materials include plant remains, seeds, and insects which can reveal information about diet, environment, and climate.

Heavy and light materials are collected separately and placed on a tray to dry. Once the sample has thoroughly dried, the material is placed in archival bags for storage and further research.

8.  People have been living in the London area for over 11,000 years.

People first started living in the London area in 11,000 BCE (before common era) during a time known as the Paleo-lithic Period. People lived in small family groups (3-5) who travelled and hunted together. This is because of the climate at the time. The Palaeo-lithic period began during the end of the last Ice Age, so the climate was much colder than today and it would have been winter all year long. Paleo communities ate Caribou almost exclusively, and as a result adopted a very nomadic lifestyle following the caribou herds. In addition to Caribou, early Paleo communities may have also hunted the Mastodon, which is similar to a woolly mammoth, but slightly smaller in size.

9.  You can experience Virtual Reality at MOA.

Developed by Western University PhD candidate Michael Carter as an aspect of his dissertation research, the exhibit combines the interpretation of archaeological evidence and ethno-historic records with modern methods of CGI and virtual reality production. Take a virtual walk through a 16th century Iroquoian longhouse wearing HTC Vive virtual reality goggles and explore life in a longhouse with a blazing cooking fire, sleeping bunks strewn with furs, and stored foods hanging from the rafters.

 

 

The Making of a Model Dig

Anna Johnstone

This week, we are featuring a story from a local Grade 11 student Anna Johnstone who is taking her passion in archaeology and sharing it with the community.

Hello, my name is Anna and I am a grade 11 student. For my Ancient Civilizations class I had to make what my teacher calls a ‘Passion Project’, which means that each student got to make any kind of project that they wanted as long as the subject related to the curriculum and we could, to quote my teacher, “get it out to the world”. I love to make models and dioramas so as soon as we started brainstorming our projects my mind jumped to a model of a dig site and artifacts that could be found at it. Since it was an Ancient Civilizations class, I decided that a site in Rome would be cool but the model looks as if it could be anywhere, even here in Ontario.

For the research part of the project I learned what kind of tools and equipment are used during an archaeological excavation and for the set-up of a site. I looked at photos of sites from all over the world, trying to decide which one I should base my model off of, but I decided that instead of trying to re-create a dig that already exists, it would be more fun to make a completely new site.

My project, inspired by archaeology in Rome.

Then began the planning and creation of the diorama, I made a few rough sketches (although I didn’t follow them too closely!) and got out a bunch of old shoe boxes and a hot glue gun. I started by making the trenches and the shallows around the artifacts.  Once I had the five trenches, I made the ground and box by cutting and gluing shoe boxes, the amount of hot glue that I used for this project was nuts! I then stuffed the box with crumpled paper so that it would be sturdier, glued the ground (with the trenches attached) to it and painted it to be more aesthetically pleasing. I covered the ground with white glue and poured sand over it to give it a nice texture (although I got so much sand on the floor I was sent outside by an irate mother to finish my task!).

The tools, trowels, brushes and pick axes, all started out as toothpicks, tinfoil, wooden skewers and bristles from a toothbrush. I made the tables and tents next, as well as a sifting tray and jewelry for one of the tables. When I had finished it seemed like something was missing, so I added small pegs and string around each trench to mark them off. When I had finally completed this part of the project, it seemed like it had taken forever! In reality it took me about a week to make, I have to admit that I largely ignored my other schoolwork and stayed up way too late every night! It was worth it! I then made the artifacts, a ring, a bracelet, a die, a clay doll, a dagger and a couple bones, and a display case to put them it.

Some of the ‘artifacts’ I made from scratch inspired by my studies in ancient civilizations.

I “got my project out to the world” by putting it on display in my school’s library and the libraries of the school where my mom teaches and my elementary school. I should also add that anyone visiting the MOA should keep an eye out for the diorama! By the time that I had completed the project, most people in my class hadn’t decided what they were going to do for their projects yet; I guess I had gotten a bit inspired!

I’m thrilled that my history teacher gave me the opportunity to do this project and many more as the class went on, she’s a great person with unique assignments that make her classes so much more fun! I loved making this project so much, it gave me the opportunity to learn more about archaeology, which I find fascinating, and make something that I am very proud of.

-Anna Johnstone-

Conservation vs. Preservation: What’s the Difference?

One of the most important roles museums have is to care and maintain artworks and artifacts in their collections. Museums all over the world abide by this to extend the objects life for future education and for general public enjoyment for generations to come. Although museums strive to protect every single object, environmental conditions, storage control, and individual handling all influence the longevity of the artworks and artifacts.

Conservation and preservation are two methods which are used to maintain the state of the object. Conservation is the hands-on act of working directly with the object to preserve its current condition. Such method can be invasive, for example, conservators use restoration treatments to enhance the object to its original state or appearance by removing accumulated layers of dirt and/or adding necessary components that have gone missing.

MOA Conservation Intern Josh cleaning a basket from the ethnographic collection.

Preservation is the non-invasive act of minimizing deterioration and preventing future damage of the object. Some examples are outlined below:

  1. Housing the objects in an environmentally controlled storage facility (i.e., being aware of possible humidity, light damage, etc.)
  2. Monitoring the collections space bi-weekly and monthly for possible pests
  3. Practising appropriate artifact/artwork handling
  4. Storing the objects in archival boxes with archival materials (materials that preserve the quality and longevity of the object, such as acid-free tissue)
Photo of the boxes that hold the ethnographic collection!

 

Here at the MOA, our collections primarily consist of ethnographic (historical documentation) and archaeological materials. The archaeological material is typically made from organic or inorganic materials. Organic materials are made from living organisms, such as animal, plant, bone, wood and inorganic materials are made from non-living organisms, such as stone, metal, ceramic, glass. Organic materials are preserved more closely as they deteriorate at a faster rate. Although conservation of objects is executed when mandatory, preservation of the objects is our main goal.

 

References

MOA Blog Post. “A Journey in Conservation: Basketry.” Accessed April 11th, 2018. http://archaeologymuseum.ca/journey-conservation-basketry/

Texas Historical Commission. “Basic Guidelines for the Preservation of Historic Artifacts.”Accessed April 11th, 2018. http://www.thc.texas.gov/public/upload/publications/Basic%20Guidelines%20for%20the%20Preservation%20of%20historic%20artifacts%202013.pdf

Conserve O Gran: National Park Service. “Conservation of Museum Collections.” Accessed April 11th, 2018. https://www.nps.gov/museum/publications/conserveogram/01-01.pdf

 

Performing Presence: Pauline Johnson and Her Predecessors

There’s a spirit on the river, there’s a ghost upon the shore,
And they sing of love and loving through the starlight evermore,
As they steal amid the silence,
And the shadows of the shore.
From “Dawendine”

Pauline Johnson (1861-1913) was the best known female Canadian poet of her time. Born on the Six Nations Reserve in Brantford, Ontario, she learned Mohawk stories and traditions from her father, Chief George Johnson. Her mother, an English immigrant, taught her British literature. As an adult, Pauline Johnson drew on both sides of her heritage for her poetry, often writing on indigenous themes within the European poetic style. While many people enjoyed reading her work, Johnson became famous for her public appearances in which she performed in both a “Mohawk princess” costume and in a Victorian evening gown.

These costume changes have fascinated scholars for years. Some believe that Johnson acted as a “cultural mediator,” conveying indigenous culture and concerns such as land rights to her white audiences. Others criticise her praise of British colonial rule, or question whether she played into the common Euro-Canadian opinion that Native culture was on the path to extinction. Johnson’s “Mohawk princess” costume, they argue, was only meant to add exotic appeal.

However, a more recent study done by Professor Manina Jones and Dr. Neal Ferris (the Lawson Chair of Canadian Archaeology) suggests otherwise. When considered in the context of Haudenosaunee diplomatic tradition, Johnson becomes one of many to use language and costume as tools for negotiation.

Take, for example, Joseph Brant (c. 1742-1807), also known as Thayendanegea. As a leader for the Mohawk Nation during and after the American Revolutionary War,

Brant spoke and wrote fluent English with his British allies. He also adapted his clothes to different situations:  he wore a European suit for formal meetings with politicians, but changed to traditional dress during a visit to Fort Niagara. The suit displayed his cultural understanding and flexibility, while the traditional costume served as a reminder of the Six Nations’ alliance with the British military.

As well as asserting his own and other Nations’ presence in British North America, Brant’s public appearances drew on Mohawk and Haudenosaunee traditions which had existed before European settlers arrived. When the Six Nations and their allies met, they often performed traditional dances for each other and shared their history, crafts, and innovations. In the nineteenth century, Pauline Johnson shared her stories and culture through poetry.

Want to learn more about Pauline Johnson’s family and the history of Six Nations’ Reserve? Stay tuned for the second post in this series, “The Two Front Doors of Chiefswood,” coming soon!

Works Cited

Ferris, Neal and Manina Jones. “Flint, Feather and Other Material Selves: Negotiating the Performance Poetics of E. Pauline Johnson.” American Indian Quarterly. 41, 2, 2017. 33-157.

Ferris, Neal. Archaeology of Native-Lived Colonialism. University of Arizona Press, 2009.

Johnson, E. Pauline. “Dawendine.” The White Wampum. Toronto: The Copp Clark Co., 1895. 19-23.

Image Sources

 http://www.christinepilgrim.com/Pauline%20Johnson.htm

 http://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/uploads/r/null/8/4/842898/935964a3-d5bf-4808-949b-ebc828d80c5f-A35998.jpg

http://www.josephbrant.com/

What is Thin Sectioning?

Thin-sectioning (also known as, thin-section analysis) is an important technique used in Archaeology for the examination of the composition of various materials. Typically, such materials include ceramics or stone.

Thin-sectioning is the removal of a very thin piece (roughly 0.03 mm) of material from the object in order to be observed under a microscope. The sample needs to be so thin that the details of the material (small internal structures, and crystals) are readily displayed in the microscope in order to undergo proper analysis. This method is crucial in determining the raw material used for the specific object, or in the case of faunal remains, determining how the animal was killed. While we are able to obtain crucial information from thin-sectioning, it has some limitations. For instance, thin-sectioning is an abrasive method which doesn’t align with the archaeological view of limiting destructive analysis techniques on artifacts.

 

Thin sectioning is only done on samples with no accompanying context. Here samples are first coated with epoxy to create pucks that are later cut to a thickness of 30 microns.

 

Thin-sectioning is a core method in petrology, or petrographic analysis, which is the identification of mineral composition and texture of the material, such as rocks and ceramics. Such technique is not limited solely to ceramics or stone, but applied to soil, plant, or bone remains. Petrographic analysis can be used in many diverse areas of study. For example, Gregory V. Braun from the Department of Anthropology in the University of Toronto, used petrography to investigate Iroquoian ceramic production and smoking rituals in a middle Ontario Iroquoian village near southern Ontario. For those interested, the link to his publication is in the reference section below.

 

Thin-section samples from Sustainable Archaeology: McMaster in varying states of progression.

Both images are sourced from Sustainable Archaeology: McMaster. July 29th, 2015. http://www.dayofarchaeology.com/sustainable-archaeology-mcmaster/

References

Biittner, Katie M. and Susan M. Jamieson. Chert Raw Material Utilization at the Bark Site (BbGp-12), Peterborough County, Southern Ontario (2006). Ontario Archaeology 81/82.

Braun, Gregory V. Petrography as a technique for investigating Iroquoian ceramic production and smoking rituals (2002). Journal of Archaeological Science 39, 1-10.

Day of Archaeology. “Sustainable Archaeology McMaster: A Day in the Life of an Archaeological Repository.” Published July 29th, 2015. http://www.dayofarchaeology.com/sustainable-archaeology-mcmaster/

Archaeology Wordsmith. “Thin-Sectioning.”Accessed April 4th, 2018. http://www.dayofarchaeology.com/sustainable-archaeology-mcmaster/

ROM Collections and Research. “Ceramic Petrology Laboratory.” Accessed April 4th, 2018. https://www.rom.on.ca/en/collections-research/research/world-culture/ceramic-petrology-facility

A Look Back: An Unusual Holcombe Point in the Vogt Collection

Originally from the Palisade Post, 1987 Vol 9 no.1

The museum received a donation of artifacts from the Vogt family, obtained from Lambton County. One of the artifacts in this collection is an unusual “Holcombe” point.

Drawing made for the museum by artist Catherine Comrie.

The Holcombe point type was first defined on the basis of specimens recovered on Holcombe Beach in Macomb County Michigan. Often made from Onondaga or Bayport Chert, this lanceolate point with a concave base and fine parallel flaking is confined to the later part of the Paleo Period ca.8000 BCE.

Holcombe points are always quite thin, have lateral edge grinding, and are rarely fluted. Although rare in Southern Ontario, at least one site with predominantly Holcombe points has been documented in the area.

This point classified as Holcombe is made from Flint Ridge Chert, which outcrops in Ohio. According to knowledgeable researchers, very few Holcombe points are made of this material.

At first glance, this point appears to be uni-facially fluted (ie. similar to fluted points). Close examination reveals that a large flake was removed during the preform stage, and that it is not a flute but rather a scar from a large flake removed from the tip. The concave base has been heavily retouched but is not ground.

Based on size alone, this point is much larger than typical Holcombe points measuring at 5.7cm in length. As with the specimens found at Holcombe beach, it is possible this point finished it’s life as a hafted knife.

Meet the Staff: Curatorial Intern Amanda

My name is Amanda Futcher and I am a third-year student at Algonquin College taking the Applied Museum Studies program. I have been working as a library/archives assistant doing a lot of work with organizing and cataloging the map collection, assisting in the digitization of photographic slides, as well as doing different odds and ends with other collections and giving a hand to deliver the virtual reality experience offered at the museum.

I believe that being able to go into a museum and see artifacts on display that are a direct link to communities who lived and used these items in the past from just a couple decades ago to a time immemorial, creates an incredible experience that connects us to different chapters of the history .

Through my program the students are tasked with finding and organizing a four month long internship for our final term. I have always had a passion for history and an interest in archaeology and human culture, and through my internship I was able to work at the MOA doing things I was interested in and expanding my skill-set and knowledge. The MOA has some amazing people working and volunteering here, and it has been a pleasure to meet and learn from them. There are so many unique visitors and stories that come through the museum, and it’s exciting to get to experience them!

One piece of advice I would like to give is to always try new things. You will never know if you like something if you don’t try, and even if you end up not liking whatever it is, you will still get valuable life experience. One of the best parts of this job is that there is always something to do, making each day a unknown adventure.

A Look Back to the Lawson Site Pot

Reconstructed pottery front face.
Front face of the reconstructed Lawson Site pot.

During the 1982 excavations on the Lawson Site, museum archaeologists discovered on of the more interesting deposits of pottery fragments yet encountered on the site. The pot sherds were interesting not only because we have been able to reconstruct them into a very large pot but especially because of the location of the fragments and what they were found with.

The pottery fragments were in the bottom of a large pit found inside the largest house yet uncovered on the site. This pit was located under the south bench row near the east end of the house. In shape, the pit was a flat-bottomed cylinder. During excavation, it was first though that this feature was a deep basin-shaped pit, but it was discovered to have a false bottom like a previous feature uncovered.

Recosntruction of the large Lawson vessel
The pot takes shape, showing temporary supports.

The overall pit contents include ceramics, chipped lithics, a hammerstone, modified bone, bone fragments, and carbonized plant remains. There was a small pottery concentration in the upper portion of the pit, but the most productive part of the feature was the lower portion. The bottom of the pit was lined with many pottery fragments. The sherds had been purposefully placed around the edges and bottom of the pit in the same way that one would use the tile fragments to line the bottom of a flower pot.

Resting above the main sherd concentration were the articulated radius and ulna of a black bear showing cutting and chewing marks on the bone. Below the main pottery concentration was a complete upper carapace of a turtle, unfortunately warped from resting upside down on a fist sized rock.

The pot fragments found lining the bottom of the pit were glued together to form almost two thirds of the large pottery vessel depicted in the above photo. The rim of the pot had multiple castellation’s but was completely undecorated (Niagara collared type), a common style of pottery on the Lawson Site.

Update: New digital technology allows us to reconstruct these pottery pieces virtually as opposed to physically which promotes the conservation and longevity of the original artifacts.

Originally featured in Palisade Post 1988 Vol.8 no.3

by Dave Smith

 

MOA Staff Post: Zsofia Agoston

This photo was taken by the forested creek behind MOA!

Hello Everyone! My name is Zsofia Agoston, and I am a third-year student at Western University majoring in Anthropology and Museum/Curatorial Studies. This year I have been working as a Curatorial Assistant doing an array of jobs including cataloguing archaeological donations, overlooking our archaeological inventory, and maintaining our gallery and exhibition spaces. Prior to this role, I volunteered at the MOA since September of 2016. Read more

Four Gift Ideas for an Archaeology Friend

Gift #1: Customized Trowel

Every archaeologist knows that when you have a trowel you must hang on to it, because you never know when it will get mixed up with someone else’s onsite. We often mark our trowels with a symbol or name to break the cycle of confusion, but alas, trowels still go missing. Developed as a hobby by an archaeologist for other archaeologists, Hermit Woodworking designs custom trowels that you can buy online or custom order with specific colours or inlays (Harry Potter theme anyone?!)

Image of trowels arranged in a crescent shape with multiple coloured handles made of wood
From Hermit Woodworking Facebook Page

Read more